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The intense heat of the arc causes the carbon in the coke and the silicon in the sand to fuse into silicon carbide. Silicon carbide is an extremely sharp, synthetic abrasive which approaches the diamond in hardness.

Sedimentary Rock Identification

Quartz has a hardness of 7 and is very difficult to scratch, even with a good quality knife blade. Gypsum is relatively soft (Hardness =2) and can be scratched easily with a fingernail. Halite has a hardness of 2.5 and cannot be scratched by a fingernail (unpolished fingernail).

Samarth Metallurgicals.com

SAMARTH COATED SAND due to its lower gas evolution (15-30% lower than regular coated sands) suits to critical requirements such as water jacket cores of cylinder heads & blocks.

Quartz Picture Gallery – Quartz and Silica Minerals

It is unusually hard for a white/clear mineral, hardness 7 on the Mohs scale. Once familiar with its appearance and range of colors, even beginner rockhounds can reliably identify quartz by eye or, if necessary, with a simple scratch test. And quartz is the main mineral of sand and sandstone.

New Jersey – NJDOT 2007 Specifications – Division 900 Materials

For HMA surface course, use fine aggregate that is manufactured stone sand or natural sand.

Glossary of Rock and Mineral Terms – S

Group of silicate minerals (tectosilicates) composed only of silica (silicon dioxide. The amount of pressure needed for the Diamond pin to be pushed down to scratch the mineral determines its hardness. Although Opal contains water in addition to silica, it is nevertheless in the silica group.

Scratches on the screens glass – Archive – xda-developers

Quartz crystals (what we call "sand") also usually sits at 7 (chemical weathering can both purify and contaminate depending upon the situation), and do not have to be just "sand" like beach/desert sand.


The hardness of chalcedony is 6.5 to 7 on the Moh's hardness scale. Some still think only diamond will scratch a windshield, but if you have ever been in a dust storm around Phoenix, you might take a close look at your windshield because the quartz dust (sand) likely pitted your softer windshield glass.

Opal Gemstone Information

That effect is so fascinating that it deserves a more lengthy description: As light enters the opal, it bends around the edges of tiny particles of hydrated silica, "chips" of silicon and oxygen suspended in water within the stone.

DUJS Online – A Tour of Barton Mine, North Creek, NY – Garnet

Garnet is also used in the scratch-free lapping of semiconductor materials and is currently replacing silica sand in blast cleaning media because it does not produce dangerous airborne dust.

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